Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Surprising History of Black People in Germany

The Surprising History of Black People in Germany The German census does not poll residents on race, following World War II, so there is no definitive number of the population of black people in Germany. One report  by  the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance  estimates there are 200,000 to 300,000 black people living in Germany, although other sources guess that number is higher, upwards of 800,000.   Regardless of the specific numbers, which dont exist, black people are a minority in Germany, but they still are present and have played an important role in the countrys  history.  In Germany, black people are typically referred to as Afro-Germans (Afrodeutsche) or black Germans (Schwarze  Deutsche).   Early History Some historians claim that the first, sizable influx of Africans came to Germany from Germanys African colonies in the 19th century. Some black people living in Germany today can claim ancestry dating back five generations to that time. Yet Prussias colonial pursuits in Africa were quite limited and brief (from 1890 to 1918), and far more modest than the British,  Dutch and French powers. Prussias South West African colony was the site of the first mass genocide committed by Germans in the 20th century. In 1904, German colonial troops countered a revolt with the massacre of three-quarters of the Herero population in what is now Namibia. It took Germany a full century to issue a formal apology to the Herero for that atrocity, which was provoked by a German extermination order (Vernichtungsbefehl). Germany still refuses to pay any compensation to the Herero survivors, although it does provide foreign aid to Namibia.   Black Germans Prior to World War II After World War I, more blacks, mostly French Senegalese soldiers or their offspring, ended up in the Rhineland region and other parts of Germany. Estimates vary, but by the 1920s, there were about 10,000 to 25,000 black people  in Germany, most of them in Berlin or other metropolitan areas. Until the Nazis came to power, black musicians and other entertainers were a popular element of the nightlife scene in Berlin and other large cities. Jazz, later denigrated as Negermusik (Negro music) by the Nazis, was made popular in Germany and Europe by black musicians, many from the U.S., who found life in Europe more liberating than that back home. Josephine Baker in France is one prominent example. Both the American writer and civil rights activist W.E.B. du Bois and the suffragist Mary Church Terrell studied at the university in Berlin. They later wrote that they experienced far less discrimination in Germany than they had in the U.S. The Nazis and theBlack Holocaust When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1932, the racist policies of the Nazis impacted other groups besides the Jews. The Nazis racial purity laws also targeted gypsies (Roma), homosexuals, people with mental disabilities  and black people. Precisely how many black Germans died in Nazi  concentration camps  is not known, but estimates put the figure at between 25,000 and 50,000. The relatively low numbers of black people in Germany, their wide dispersal across the country and the Nazis focus on the Jews were some factors that made it possible for many black Germans to survive the war.   African Americans in Germany The next influx of black people to Germany came in the wake of World War II when many African-American GIs were stationed in Germany.   In Colin Powells  autobiography My American Journey, he  wrote  of  his tour of duty in West Germany in 1958 that for ... black GIs, especially those out of the South, Germany was a breath of freedom -   they could go where they wanted, eat where they wanted and date whom they wanted, just like other people. The dollar was strong, the beer good, and the German people friendly. But not all Germans were as tolerant as in Powells experience. In many  cases, there was resentment of the black GIs having relationships with white German women. The children of German women and black GIs in Germany were called occupation children† (Besatzungskinder) - or worse.  Mischlingskind  (half-breed/mongrel child) was one of the least offensive terms used for half-black children in the 1950s and 60s.   More About the Term 'Afrodeutsche' German-born blacks are sometimes called Afrodeutsche (Afro-Germans)  but the term is still not widely used by the general public. This category includes people of African heritage born in Germany. In some cases, only one parent is black But just being born in Germany does not make you a German citizen. (Unlike many other countries, German citizenship is based on the citizenship of your parents and is passed on by blood.) This means that black people born in Germany, who grew up there and speak fluent German, are not German citizens unless they have at least one German parent. However, in 2000, a new German naturalization law made it possible for black people and other foreigners to apply for citizenship after living in Germany for three to eight years. In the 1986 book, Farbe Bekennen  -   Afrodeutsche Frauen auf den Spuren Ihrer Geschichte, authors May Ayim  and  Katharina Oguntoye  opened up a debate about being black in Germany. Although the book dealt primarily with black women in German society, it introduced the term Afro-German into the German language  (borrowed from Afro-American or African American) and also sparked the founding of a support group for blacks in Germany, the ISD (Initiative Schwarzer Deutscher).

Saturday, February 29, 2020

An Overview of Selective Amino acid Based NLO Crystals

An Overview of Selective Amino acid Based NLO Crystals Piperidine ring is one of the most recognizable structural entities among heterocyclic molecules [24]. Piperidine has a six-membered ring similar to cyclohexane with one methylene (CH2) replaced by secondary amino (NH) group. In 1853, Cahours, discovered the alkaloid piperine 1, which occurs in black pepper. Piperidine which was first isolated from piperine 1, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4. Thousands of piperidine compounds have been cited in clinical and preclinical studies. The synthesis of piperidine is easy, economic and less time consuming. The parent molecule is flexible in nature and hence various derivatives can be easily prepared by altering its substituent. In recent years, research efforts have been made in exploring novel organic materials for their potential use in a variety of devices. The materials which could produce green/blue laser light and could withstand high energy light radiation are of vital importance for their uses in devices. The basic understanding of organic nonlinear optical materials has been well established and extensive studies have been motivated by their wide range of potential applications. Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) induced by an acoustical field was observed in several composites, both in bulk as well as in large sized nano crystallite samples. The effect is generally explained by a non-centrosymmetric spatial charge density distribution of photo carrier excitation under an external acoustical field due to the electrostriction (photo acoustical) effects. An organic molecule should possess large second-order hyperpolarizability to exhibit good non-linear optical properties. ОІ can be enha nced by increasing the intermolecular charge transfer interaction and by extending the size of conjugated system. The piperidine derivatives are well known for their outstanding green light transmittance much better than those observed in inorganic crystals and show conspicuous inclination to crystallize as non-centrosymmetric materials. The structural flexibility of organic compounds is an asset for materials with optimized second order NLO susceptibility, fast response and tailor-made flexibility. An innumerable of organic crystals are synthesized and grown as a part of this. One of the noticeable requirements for nonlinear crystal is that it should have excellent optical quality. For a device to flourish, it is vital that it should meet a number of criteria such as optical nonlinearity, chemical and thermal stability for life time system capability. Organic NLO materials are attracting a great deal of attention for possible use in optical devices because of their large optical nonlinearity, low cut-off wavelengths, fast response time and high thresholds for laser power. Most of the organic molecules show large nonlinear optical response, with the electron-donor and electron-acceptor groups located at the extreme of a system involving correlated and high delocalized П-electron states. A nonzero SHG behavior is present in centrosymmetric crystals if chiral molecules and circularly polarized light are used. It has been recognized that the two-photon optical properties of materials should be affected by the donor acceptor strength, the molecular structure, the conjugation length and the intermolecular charge transfer etc. The D-A conjugated oligomers usually have two types of molecular structures, such as asymmetrical D-A type and symmetrical D-A-D or A-D-A type. The optical properties of these oligomers can be easily tuned by the introduction of different donor or acceptor moieties. Apart from structural flexibility, which allows fine-tuning of chemical structures for the desired NLO properties, the organic materials are of great technological interest due to their low cost, ease of fabrication, handy integration into devices, low dielectric constant, high electro-optic coefficient value, and resistance to laser damages. Polar organic crystals, which form non-centrosymmetric crystal structures, are attracting much interest due to their potentially high nonlinearities and a rapid response in electro-optic effects that often surpass those on inorganic nonlinear optical materials.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Business law case study Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Business law case study - Coursework Example The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (UCPD) was passed on May, 2005, and had to be executed by member countries into national law by June 12, 2007 and it was applicable by December 12, 2007. Nevertheless, some member countries – for example, the UK, Spain and Germany – were late in adapting this law. It is said that there are various forms of misleading information about advertising on the internet, but the main form is still associated with misleading pricing information. Clients have complained that some of the prices that firms put on their websites are not the actual prices they pay when they buy the product. Such a case was witnessed in Hillingdon Electricals Ltd (HEL) when they stated on their website that the price of iPads and Tablets were ?29 and ?19, respectively while the actual prices were ?290 and ?190 respectively. This matter brought up a lot of controversy to the organisation, where they ended up stating that it was due to human error. Some clients how visited the store demanded to be sold the gadgets on the prices advertised while others, who had bought the gadgets online went to the store to demand for refunds. This paper will discuss these issues and advice specific clients who were caught in this tussle on their next move. Scenario A – Tony and Ursula Under the Sale of Goods Act of 1979, there are a harsh set of regulations, which sellers and retailers are expected to abide by (Wallington, 2010). When someone purchases a good, it signifies that they have entered into an agreement or contract with the vendor of the good. Under the Sale of Goods Act also, goods should be described, fit the purpose and of satisfactory quality. Fitting the purposes signifies both their day to day use, as well as also any particular purpose, which the buyer agreed with the vendor (Kidner, 2012). For instance, a buyer might specifically request for a printer, which would be compatible with his/her computer. Products sold are also expected to fit nay sample they were show in-store or any explanation in the brochure. Also, the issue of pricing comes into play because there are cases where a client can buy a product online thinking that they paid the price stated on the website and that is not true (McCarthy, 2010). If you wish to claim for a refund under the Sale of Goods Act, then you have a couple possible ways of settling your issue, relying on the situation and what you wish to be done. The claimant’s rights are against the vendor – the organisation, which sold them the product – not the producer, and so they should make any claim not towards the manufacture, but against the retailer. Nevertheless, this act does not apply to products that a client has bought on hire purchase (HP). If someone buys a product, which turns out to be flawed, then they can opt to reject it. This means they can return it and get a full refund of their money (Slocombe, 2012). The word flawed was explained at the begin ning of this section, which also included pricing errors (Wallington, 2010). However, the law only grants you a logical period to do this – what is logical lays on the good and how clear the error is. But, even with complex items or considerable purchases, it is much safer to work with the basis that you normally have less than three to four weeks from the day you received the product to reject it (Kidner,

Saturday, February 1, 2020

TLMT312 WEEK 8 FORUM Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

TLMT312 WEEK 8 FORUM - Assignment Example However, I still need to learn various techniques in the course to improve my class performance such as undertaking thorough research on supply logistics and inventory management to understand it well. There are certain logistics courses objectives that are still not clear to me such as cost associated with inventory procedures of instituting and monitoring whole inventory resources. It is cumbrous to identify cost related with record process. I would read various scholarly books on the topic and consult my tutor on the areas so that I can fully comply with the objectives of the course. The main ways of measuring prospect effects of what I have learnt on the course is through improvement of my performance on the course in exams and assignments, comparing the level of participation in class and groups and determining the level of creativity in the whole course about the application in real world. Positive steps on the techniques above would depict massive advancement on the

Friday, January 24, 2020

The canadian criminal code Essay -- essays research papers fc

The Evolution of the Canadian Criminal Code The laws of the United States have been revised numerous times, and the Criminal Code of Canada is similar. The Criminal Code is a systematically arranged body of law dealing with crime. The code has been revised multiple times over the past century by the federal government to help accommodate the numerous laws that have been applied to Canadian citizens. The history of homicide in the Criminal Code has evolved from having no degrees of murder in 1892 to having three types of culpable homicide (Leyton). The Canadian Criminal Code has changed over the years to accommodate the needs of changing times, such as amendments for gun control and the elimination of the death penalty. In 1892, the Criminal Code of Canada was established, copying much of the English 1878 bill. â€Å"The Canadian Criminal code which copied the English bill of 1878 has been revised numerous times to accommodate the needs of the Canadian citizens† (Monroe). At that time there was no distinguishing between different types of murder through degrees of severity, because the punishment for every type of murder was the death penalty, and manslaughter was a life sentence in prison (Designs). In 1955, a major reform was carried out and the Canadian Criminal Code was reduced from 1100 sections to only 753. The president of the Law Reform Commission of Canada did this major reform and noted, "It is too complicated. It is too illogical. It is poorly organized. It is not comprehensive and it is too intrusive. We deserve a Criminal Code that is modern, simple, logical, coherent, comprehensive, organized, understandable and restrained" (â€Å"What †). One of the advantages of the reform was the addition of a constitutional principle that no person was to be convicted of an offense unless it had been provided specifically for in a statute. Even though the reform brought many new changes, the Criminal Code was not fully revised because in 1961 there were other changes done to the Code. In this change, the code included degrees of murder and divided the murders into capital and non-capital murder. The punishment for capital murder was death, while non-capital murder was punishable by life in prison (Leyton). Capital murder was categorize... ...s well as other countries, Canada uses the lethal injection and the electric chair as methods of punishment, although the lethal injection is by far the most common. Indeed the laws for Canadian citizens have changed numerous times over the years to help them accommodate the changes in their nation. Works Cited Bralove, Alisa. â€Å" Mass murder to get new sentence.† Dolan Media Newswire. 09 September 2003: Page 1. Designs, Alissa. â€Å"The History of Homicide in the Criminal Code.† Victims Of Violence. Online 13 October 2003. < alissa’sdesigns@rogers?subject=victims%200f%20violence.com> Dessert, James. â€Å"Criminal Timeline of Canada.† Canada's Criminal Code: A History. Online. Internet. 11 October 2003. Garibay, Maria D. Personal Interview. 16 October 2003. Geter, Peter. â€Å" Murder of Crying baby was premeditated.† Daily Record. 23 June 2003: Page 1. Leyton, Elliott. â€Å" Homicide.† Canadian Encyclopedia. 1998 Ed. Monroe, Susan. â€Å"Criminal Law.† Criminal Timeline of Canada. Online. Internet 09 November 2003. â€Å"What is first-degree murder?† World Wide Information Association. Online. Internet. 09 November 2003.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Circular Flow Essay

In the textbook, there are two circular flow diagrams. One represents the flows in the macro-economy as a closed system and the other represents the flows as an open system. The circular flow diagrams show how money travels through the economic systems including businesses, households, foreign agents and governments (Editorial Board, 2013). Within the closed and open systems there are two consumers. The first consumers are households that buy goods and services and the second consumers are those businesses that purchase factors to produce. Households enter the goods market while the businesses enter factor markets. The first type of circular flow is that of the closed macro-economy system. This is the circular flow of money. A closed system is an economic model that counts only domestic exchanges but not the foreign agents. This therefore means that without foreign agents, the government or the economy is free of leakages. This system is basically shut off from surrounding environments and is self-contained. An example of a closed system would be the Earth system as a whole. Although energy passes across the Earth’s system boundary, no mass is exchanged throughout the Earth’s system and the rest of the universe (Ritter, M., 2011). The second type of circular flow in the macro-economy is considered the open system. The open system is the opposite of the closed system. It is an economic model that counts goods and services exchanged domestically and between nations (Editorial Board, 2013). In the diagram in the textbook, it indicates the circular flow of money in an open economy system. Open systems allow energy and mass to pass through and across the system boundary. An example of an open system would be the ocean. The ocean is considered an open system because it allows energy and mass to pass through. Energy which is solar radiation, latent heat and mass including water vapor and precipitation all pass across the boundary between the atmosphere and  hydrosphere of the ocean. In the closed system, households spend their money not only on domestic products but also on goods and services. While looking over the diagram should in the textbook, the inner flow of the closed system includes land, labor, and capital given to businesses from households to receive goods and services to the household. Households use the income (wages and salaries) for services offered to business to purchase goods and services from other businesses. On the other hand, businesses use the money received from households to buy factors of production they require. Thus, money flows in a circular motion within the economy. Therefore, the outer flows of a closed system include money from the household to business in order to pay for wages and rent for the houses. In the open system, there are more flow levels to consider. An open system considers the flow of money both domestically and internationally between countries. This system includes the government, households, and businesses. The demand for imports from a foreign economy consists of goods for investment, consumption of government goods. The government however enters the factor market as well as the goods market. It enters the factor market in order to obtain domestic labor, capital, and other factors of production to provide goods and services. The government enters the goods market to purchase these goods and services such as cars, trucks, pens or pencils. After the government lends out public services to the household and businesses, the households sends labor, land and capital to businesses and receive goods and services from those businesses as they pay taxes to the government. The next level flow which is the outer flow consists of money sent from the household to the businesses for wages and rent to be paid for the household. Leakages are taxes, savings, and import expenditures not spend in the economy. There are several leaks in the open system which includes leaks from households to companies, businesses to owners of factors of production and from both households and businesses to the government. Money leakages are created when an American consumer buys imports or when a company in the United States hires someone from India to work as a customer service representative. The households leaks when consumers buy goods and services from foreign businesses, and the money those households save whether in checking accounts or stocking. The business leaks when firms use labor, capital and other resources from foreign households. These leaks then inject money into the system. Injection is considered as things that enter into the households or businesses due to the leaks that were caused in the open system. An injection that comes into the household is that of foreign firms sending wages and rent to US households. An injection that comes into the businesses is that of foreign households purchasing goods produced by US firms. An example of a leakage would be a household buying a foreign car from a foreign company outside the United States. An example of an injection would be households in japan purchasing pens and pencils from firms in the United States. The difference between closed systems and open systems can be defined easily. Getting a better understanding of the two systems and how they work can help us operate throughout our daily lives and the world around us. As we grow we continue to learn about our economy and how the government interacts with households and companies. References Editorial Board (2013). Introduction to Macroeconomics. Web retrieved from http://wow.coursesmart.com/9781934920541/firstsection#X2ludGVybmFsX0J2ZGVwRmxhc2hSZWFkZXI/eG1saWQ9OTc4MTkzNDkyMDU0MS8zMA== Ritter, Michael E. The Physical Environment: an Introduction to Physical Geography. http://www4.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/earth_system/types_of_systems.html

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Review Of The Client Charlie Kelmeckis Essay

Part One: Clients Background The client, Charlie Kelmeckis, is a 15-year-old teen who lives in Western Pennsylvania. Charlie is a freshman student from a high school in a Pittsburgh suburban. Charlie lives with his mother, his father, older sister, and his older brother. He also used to live with Aunt Helen which is her moms’ sister when she was alive. Charlie was the most attached to his Aunt from all of his family members. However, when he was age 7, Aunt Helen died in a car accident the day of his birthday. Charlie had been previously institutionalized by his family after the death of his aunt with the fear that he will harm himself. He has also been hospitalized for trying to commit suicide. Moreover, he was abused by his aunt when he was at a very young (5 years old). Moreover, his Aunt Helen grew up dependent on drugs and alcohol. Charlie has history of emotional problems; however, he has not been diagnosed with anything yet. Before entering high school, he had a period in his life were things were really rough to him and was shocked by the death of one of his closes friend who committed suicide. By time he gets into high school, he is first described by his classmates as a loner person, and has only few friends in school. Most of the times, Charlie will spend a lot of his days reading, listening, or making tapes. Charlie has also experimented with some drugs such as Marijuana and LSD. Charlie’s mother and hisShow MoreRelatedPerks Of Being A Wallflower Case Study3607 Words   |  15 Pages Running head: Case of Charlie 1 The Perks of Being a Wallflower: Charlies Diagnosis Hannah G. Lail, Justin K. Millsaps, Mady T. Thomas, Mikayah M. Parsons, and Zachary A. Ware Case of Charlie 2 1. How do you behave in the interview? You seem to be very intelligent for your age, evident in the ways that you listen and respond. Your thought process is fast and your mind is always on the go. However, despite your intellectual ability, this can contribute